The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, Patient Education Site

Colonic and Rectal carcinoids

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Suggested References

Koura, AN, Giacco, GG, Curley, SA, et al. Carcinoid tumors of the rectum: Effect of size, histopathology, and surgical treatment on metastasis free survival. Cancer 1997; 79:1294.

Loftus, JP, van Heerden, JA. Surgical management of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. Adv Surg 1995; 28:317.

Mani, S, Modlin, IM, Ballantyne, G. Carcinoid of the rectum. J Am Coll Surg 1994; 179:231.

Naunheim, KS, Zeitels, J, Kaplan, EL, et al. Rectal carcinoid tumors-treatment and prognosis. Surgery 1983; 94:670.

Sauven, P, Ridge, JA, Quan, SH, Sigurdson, ER. Anorectal carcinoid tumors: Is aggressive surgery warranted? Ann Surg 1990; 211:67.


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