Neuroendocrine Tumors

All
  • All
  • Appendiceal Carcinoid Tumors
  • Background
  • Colonic and Rectal Carcinoid Tumors
  • Gastric Carcinoid Tumors
  • Glucagonoma
  • Insulinoma
  • Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • Non-functional Tumor
  • Paraganglioma
  • Pulmonary Carcinoid
  • Small Bowel Carcinoid Tumors
  • Somatostatinoma
  • Tumor Advocacy Groups
  • VIPoma
Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

What is a Neuroendocrine Tumor?

Neuroendocrine tumors are neoplasic lesions that arise in this system evenly distributed throughout the human body, and may originate in endocrine glands as a whole (hypophysis, parathyroid, adrenals), from other structural elements in these same endocrine glands (thyroid, pancreas), and from exocrine cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Neuroendocrine tumors are slow growing lesions,…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Treatment of Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors 

Patients with metastases from a neuroendocrine cancer may become symptomatic from hormone hypersecretion, rather than from tumor bulk. Approximately 10 to 30 percent of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors secrete hormones that can result in clinical syndromes.  In particular, patients with small bowel or appendiceal carcinoid tumors may develop carcinoid syndrome, typically after development of hepatic metastases that…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Resources for Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumors

North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS) is an organization which was founded for scientific and educational purposes in 2006. The objectives of this group are: to develop and publish consensus guidelines outlining concrete strategies on appropriate neuroendocrine cancer management, to enhance public awareness of neuroendocrine tumor management, to enhance public awareness…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Paraganglioma – Diagnosis and Treatment

Noradrenaline and adrenaline are hormones that influence many normal functions of the body. They help regulate heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, digestion, sweating, urination, and sexual arousal. In times of stress or danger, they also increase blood sugar to supply the brain and muscle with energy. Adrenaline is said to control the “fight or flight”…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of VIPoma

What is a VIPoma? A VIPoma is a neuroendocrine tumor which secretes vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). They were first characterized by Verner and Morrison in 1958. Classically, these tumors present with secretory diarrhea, achlorhydria with metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia; the so called watery diarrhea syndrome; pancreatic, or endocrine cholera. These rare tumors occur with a…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Somatostatinoma

What is a somatostatinoma? Somatostatinoma is a very rare neuroendocrine tumor, with an incidence of one in 40 million persons. They occur more frequently in female patients (67%). The median age at diagnosis is 51 years (range 26-84 years). These tumors arise from the delta cells in the pancreas, although these cells can be present…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Small Bowel Carcinoids

Neuroendocrine or carcinoid tumors of the small intestine arise from serotonin-producing, intraepithelial cells in the small intestine referred to as enterochromafin cells. The term “enterochromaffin” is used to describe cells that stain with potassium chromate, a characteristic of cells that contain serotonin. Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors are typically round, well-circumscribed neoplasms found in the submucosa…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Pulmonary Carcinoid

A pulmonary, lung or bronchial carcinoid is a rare tumor of the lung, accounting for only 1-2 % of lung cancers. Carcinoid tumors arise from neuroendocrine cells, which produce hormones, or chemicals that regulate other parts of the body. Most carcinoids (55%) occur in the gastrointestinal system, but 25 to 30% can occur in the…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Non-functional Neuroendocrine Tumors

Non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are a specific type of endocrine tumors in which the cells do not produce any biologically active hormones.  These tumors may secrete substances that do not result in clinically measurable symptoms (pancreatic polypeptide, neurotensin, or calcitonin).  Studies have shown that 10-25% of all pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are non-functional, with some suggesting…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Insulinoma

What is an insulinoma? Patients with insulinomas present with episodic hypoglycemic events; with central nervous system dysfunction (confusion, anxiety, stupor, paralysis, seizures, coma). These symptoms reverse dramatically with the ingestion of carbohydrates or intravenous glucose infusion; a clinical situation otherwise known as Whipple´s triad. Patients with insulinomas have complete loss of the feedback control over…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Glucagonoma

What is a glucagonoma? Glucagonomas are third in occurrence of all the pancreatic neorendocrine tumors (5 to 10 %).  It is estimated that one person in 20 million will present with glucagonoma each year. Glucagon is normally secreted from the islet cells of the pancreatic gland, and is responsible of counterregulatory function in glucose metabolism,…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Colorectal Carcinoid Tumors

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Evaluation and Treatment of Appendiceal Carcinoid

Carcinoid tumors are the most common tumors of the appendix, accounting for more than half of all appendiceal malignancies. Carcinoid tumors arise from cells called subepithelial neuroendocrine cells in tissues throughout the body, and can be diagnosed in many locations throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They account for 5% of all carcinoid tumors identified in…

Illustration of Neuroendocrine Tumors

Background and Types of Gastric Carcinoid Tumors

Gastric carcinoid tumors represent 4% of all gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine tumors, and the incidence of these tumors has been reported to be increasing. The percentage of gastric carcinoids in relation to all gastric neoplasms has also increased, from 0.4% to 1.8%. It remains unclear if these trends represent a true increase in incidence of this…