Additional Articles

  • Silverberg SJ, Shane E, Jacobs TP, et al. A 10-year prospective study of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery. N Engl J Med 1999; 341(17):1249-55.
  • Mollerup CL, Vestergaard P, Frokjaer VG, et al. Risk of renal stone events in primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroid surgery: controlled retrospective follow up study. BMJ 2002; 325(7368):807.
  • Rodman JS, Mahler RJ. Kidney stones as a manifestation of hypercalcemic disorders. Hyperparathyroidism and sarcoidosis. Urol Clin North Am 2000; 27(2):275-85, viii.
  • Giles Y, Baspinar I, Tunca F, et al. Impact of surgical treatment on respiratory muscle dysfunction in symptomatic hyperparathyroidism. Arch Surg 2005; 140(12):1167-71.
  • Kristoffersson A, Bostrom A, Soderberg T. Muscle strength is improved after parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Br J Surg 1992; 79(2):165-8.
  • Chou FF, Sheen-Chen SM, Leong CP. Neuromuscular recovery after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery 1995; 117(1):18-25.
  • Joborn C, Hetta J, Johansson H, et al. Psychiatric morbidity in primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg 1988; 12(4):476-81.
  • McAllion SJ, Paterson CR. Psychiatric morbidity in primary hyperparathyroidism. Postgrad Med J 1989; 65(767):628-631.
  • Goyal A, Chumber S, Tandon N, et al. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in patients of primary hyperparathyroidism and outcome following surgery. Indian J Med Sci 2001; 55(12):677-86.
  • Roman SA, Sosa JA, Mayes L, et al. Parathyroidectomy improves neurocognitive deficits in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery 2005; 138(6):1121-8; discussion 1128-9.
  • Dotzenrath CM, Kaetsch AK, Pfingsten H, et al. Neuropsychiatric and cognitive changes after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg 2006; 30(5):680-5.
  • Spivak B, Radvan M, Ohring R, Weizman A. Primary hyperparathyroidism, psychiatric manifestations, diagnosis and management. Psychother Psychosom 1989; 51(1):38-44.
  • Perrier ND, Coker LH, Rorie KD, et al. Preliminary report: functional MRI of the brain may be the ideal tool for evaluating neuropsychologic and sleep complaints of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg 2006; 30(5):686-96.
  • Mittendorf EA, Wefel JS, Meyers CA, et al. Improvement of sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function after parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract 2007; 13(4):338-44.
  • Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition. San Antonio: The Psychological Corp., 1997.
  • Okamoto T, Kamo T, Obara T. Outcome study of psychological distress and nonspecific symptoms in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Surg 2002; 137(7):779-83; discussion 784.
  • Kleinfeld M, Peter S, Gilbert GM. Delirium as the predominant manifestation of hyperparathyroidism: reversal after parathyroidectomy. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984; 32(9):689-90.
  • Alarcon RD, Franceschini JA. Hyperparathyroidism and paranoid psychosis. Case report and review of the literature. Br J Psychiatry 1984; 145:477-86.
  • Borer MS, Bhanot VK. Hyperparathyroidism: neuropsychiatric manifestations. Psychosomatics 1985; 26(7):597-601.
  • Brown RS, Jr., Fischman A, Showalter CR. Primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, paranoid delusions, homicide, and attempted murder. J Forensic Sci 1987; 32(5):1460-1463.
  • Hayabara T, Hashimoto K, Izumi H, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders in primary hyperparathyroidism. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1987; 41(1):33-40.
  • Solomon BL, Schaaf M, Smallridge RC. Psychologic symptoms before and after parathyroid surgery. Am J Med 1994; 96(2):101-6.
  • Brown GG, Preisman RC, Kleerekoper M. Neurobehavioral symptoms in mild primary hyperparathyroidism: related to hypercalcemia but not improved by parathyroidectomy. Henry Ford Hosp Med J 1987; 35(4):211-5.
  • Reinfrank RF. Primary hyperparathyroidism with depression. Arch Intern Med 1961; 108:606-10.
  • Weber T, Keller M, Hense I, et al. Effect of parathyroidectomy on quality of life and neuropsychological symptoms in primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg 2007; 31(6):1202-9.
  • Logue FC, Fraser WD, Gallacher SJ, et al. The loss of circadian rhythm for intact parathyroid hormone and nephrogenous cyclic AMP in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1990; 32(4):475-83.
  • Nilsson IL, Aberg J, Rastad J, Lind L. Circadian cardiac autonomic nerve dysfunction in primary hyperparathyroidism improves after parathyroidectomy. Surgery 2003; 134(6):1013-9; discussion 1019.
  • Walker RP, Paloyan E, Gopalsami C. Symptoms in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: muscle weakness or sleepiness. Endocr Pract 2004; 10(5):404-8.
  • Burney RE, Jones KR, Christy B, Thompson NW. Health status improvement after surgical correction of primary hyperparathyroidism in patients with high and low preoperative calcium levels. Surgery 1999; 125(6):608-14.
  • Quiros RM, Alef MJ, Wilhelm SM, et al. Health-related quality of life in hyperparathyroidism measurably improves after parathyroidectomy. Surgery 2003; 134(4):675-81; discussion 681-3.
  • Pasieka JL, Parsons LL. Prospective surgical outcome study of relief of symptoms following surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg 1998; 22(6):513-8; discussion 518-9.
  • Fitz TE, Hallman BL. Mental changes associated with hyperparathyroidism; report of two cases. AMA Arch Intern Med 1952; 89(4):547-51.
  • Agras S, Oliveau DC. Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Psychosis. Can Med Assoc J 1964; 91:1366-7.
  • Chan AK, Duh QY, Katz MH, et al. Clinical manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy. A case-control study. Ann Surg 1995; 222(3):402-12; discussion 412-4.
  • Rosenblatt S, Faillace LA. Psychiatric manifestations of hyperparathyroidism. Tex Med 1977; 73(2):59-60.
  • Talpos GB, Bone HG, 3rd, Kleerekoper M, et al. Randomized trial of parathyroidectomy in mild asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: patient description and effects on the SF-36 health survey. Surgery 2000; 128(6):1013-20;discussion 1020-1.
  • Vazquez-Diaz O, Castillo-Martinez L, Orea-Tejeda A, et al. Reversible changes of electrocardiographic abnormalities after parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cardiol J 2009; 16(3):241-5.
  • Leifsson BG, Ahren B. Serum calcium and survival in a large health screening program. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81(6):2149-53.
  • Hedback G, Oden A, Tisell LE. The influence of surgery on the risk of death in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg 1991; 15(3):399-405; discussion 406-7.
  • Kebebew E, Hwang J, Reiff E, et al. Predictors of single-gland vs multigland parathyroid disease in primary hyperparathyroidism: a simple and accurate scoring model. Arch Surg 2006; 141(8):777-82; discussion 782.
  • Harari A, Zarnegar R, Lee J, et al. Computed tomography can guide focused exploration in select patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative sestamibi scanning. Surgery 2008; 144(6):970-6; discussion 976-9.
  • Vestergaard P, Mollerup CL, Frokjaer VG, et al. Cohort study of risk of fracture before and after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. BMJ 2000; 321(7261):598-602.
  • VanderWalde LH, Liu IL, O’Connell TX, Haigh PI. The effect of parathyroidectomy on bone fracture risk in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Surg 2006; 141(9):885-9; discussion 889-91.
  • Rubin MR, Bilezikian JP, McMahon DJ, et al. The natural history of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery after 15 years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(9):3462-70.
  • Corlew DS, Bryda SL, Bradley EL, 3rd, DiGirolamo M. Observations on the course of untreated primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery 1985; 98(6):1064-71.
  • Peacock M, Bilezikian JP, Klassen PS, et al. Cinacalcet hydrochloride maintains long-term normocalcemia in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90(1):135-41.
  • Wuthrich RP, Martin D, Bilezikian JP. The role of calcimimetics in the treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Eur J Clin Invest 2007; 37(12):915-22.
  • Chen H, Parkerson S, Udelsman R. Parathyroidectomy in the elderly: do the benefits outweigh the risks? World J Surg 1998; 22(6):531-5; discussion 535-6.
  • Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH. Parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in octogenarians and nonagenarians: a plea for early surgical referral. Arch Surg 2003; 138(8):867-71.
  • Silverberg SJ, Rubin MR, Faiman C, et al. Cinacalcet hydrochloride reduces the serum calcium concentration in inoperable parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92(10):3803-8.
  • Zanocco K, Angelos P, Sturgeon C. Cost-effectiveness analysis of parathyroidectomy for asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery 2006; 140(6):874-81; discussion 881-2.
  • Parfitt AM. Hormonal influences on bone remodeling and bone loss: application to the management of primary hyperparathyroidism. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125(5):413-5.
  • Khan AA, Bilezikian JP, Kung AW, et al. Alendronate in primary hyperparathyroidism: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89(7):3319-25.
  • Parker CR, Blackwell PJ, Fairbairn KJ, Hosking DJ. Alendronate in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroid-related osteoporosis: a 2-year study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87(10):4482-9.
  • Chow CC, Chan WB, Li JK, et al. Oral alendronate increases bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(2):581-7.
  • Bollerslev J, Jansson S, Mollerup CL, et al. Medical observation, compared with parathyroidectomy, for asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: a prospective, randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92(5):1687-92.
  • Guo CY, Thomas WE, al-Dehaimi AW, et al. Longitudinal changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81(10):3487-91.
  • Diamond T, Ng AT, Levy S, et al. Estrogen replacement may be an alternative to parathyroid surgery for the treatment of osteoporosis in elderly postmenopausal women presenting with primary hyperparathyroidism: a preliminary report. Osteoporos Int 1996; 6(4):329-33.
  • Grey AB, Stapleton JP, Evans MC, et al. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with mild primary hyperparathyroidism. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125(5):360-8.
  • Orr-Walker BJ, Evans MC, Clearwater JM, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism: four-year follow-up and comparison with healthy postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(14):2161-6.
  • Sosa JA, Powe NR, Levine MA, et al. Profile of a clinical practice: Thresholds for surgery and surgical outcomes for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: a national survey of endocrine surgeons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83(8):2658-65.
  • Bergenfelz A, Lindblom P, Tibblin S, Westerdahl J. Unilateral versus bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2002; 236(5):543-51.
  • Carneiro DM, Solorzano CC, Irvin GL, 3rd. Recurrent disease after limited parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. J Am Coll Surg 2004; 199(6):849-53; discussion 853-5.
  • Chen H, Sokoll LJ, Udelsman R. Outpatient minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: a combination of sestamibi-SPECT localization, cervical block anesthesia, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay. Surgery 1999; 126(6):1016-21; discussion 1021-2.
  • Barczynski M, Cichon S, Konturek A, Cichon W. Minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy versus open minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for a solitary parathyroid adenoma: a prospective, randomized, blinded trial. World J Surg 2006; 30(5):721-31.
  • Miccoli P, Berti P. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 15(2):139-47.
  • Irvin GL, 3rd, Solorzano CC, Carneiro DM. Quick intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay: surgical adjunct to allow limited parathyroidectomy, improve success rate, and predict outcome. World J Surg 2004; 28(12):1287-92.
  • Udelsman R, Donovan PI. Remedial parathyroid surgery: changing trends in 130 consecutive cases. Ann Surg 2006; 244(3):471-9.
  • Wu BH, PI; Bath, J. Utilization of parathyroidectomy in older patients: a population-based study., 2009.
  • Flint RS, Harman CR, Carter J, Snyman G. Primary hyperparathyroidism: referral patterns and outcomes of surgery. ANZ J Surg 2002; 72(3):200-3.
  • Bachar G, Gilat H, Mizrachi A, et al. Comparison of perioperative management and outcome of parathyroidectomy between older and younger patients. Head Neck 2008; 30(11):1415-21.
  • Chigot JP, Menegaux F, Achrafi H. Should primary hyperparathyroidism be treated surgically in elderly patients older than 75 years? Surgery 1995; 117(4):397-401.
  • Egan KR, Adler JT, Olson JE, Chen H. Parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in octogenarians and nonagenarians: a risk-benefit analysis. J Surg Res 2007; 140(2):194-8.
  • Mannix H, Jr., Pyrtek LJ, Crombie HD, Jr., Canalis E. Hyperparathyroidism in the elderly. Am J Surg 1980; 139(4):581-5.
  • Pruhs ZM, Starling JR, Mack E, Chen H. Changing trends for surgery in elderly patients with hyperparathyroidism at a single institution. J Surg Res 2005; 127(1):58-62.
  • Shin SH, Holmes H, Bao R, et al. Outpatient minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is safe for elderly patients. J Am Coll Surg 2009; 208(6):1071-6.
  • Uden P, Chan A, Duh QY, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in younger and older patients: symptoms and outcome of surgery. World J Surg 1992; 16(4):791-7; discussion 798.
  • Stechman MJ, Weisters M, Gleeson FV, et al. Parathyroidectomy is safe and improves symptoms in elderly patients with PHPT. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2009.
  • Politz D, Norman J. Hyperparathyroidism in patients over 80: clinical characteristics and their ability to undergo outpatient parathyroidectomy. Thyroid 2007; 17(4):333-9.
  • Ben Haim M, Zwas ST, Munz Y, et al. Focused, minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy: a feasible and safe option for elderly patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Isr Med Assoc J 2003; 5(5):326-8.
  • Lowe H, McMahon DJ, Rubin MR, et al. Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism: further characterization of a new clinical phenotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92(8):3001-5.
  • Tordjman KM, Greenman Y, Osher E, et al. Characterization of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Med 2004; 117(11):861-3.
  • Bilezikian JP, Potts JT, Jr., Fuleihan Gel H, et al. Summary statement from a workshop on asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: a perspective for the 21st century. J Bone Miner Res 2002; 17 Suppl 2:N2-11.
  • Lind L, Ljunghall S. Serum urate and renal function in different forms of hypercalcemia. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1992; 99(2):87-90.
  • Lorentzon R, Larsson HO, Boquist L. Quantitative parathyroid morphology is unaltered in prolonged hypocalcemia. A quantitative electron microscopic study in the Mongolian gerbil. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand A 1984; 92(4):267-74.
  • Gordon W. The consequences of uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism and its treatment in chronic kidney disease. Semin Dial 2004; 17:209-216.
  • Olson JA, Jr., Leight GS, Jr. Surgical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Adv Ren Replace Ther 2002; 9(3):209-18.
  • Rothmund M, Wagner PK, Schark C. Subtotal parathyroidectomy versus total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation in secondary hyperparathyroidism: a randomized trial. World J Surg 1991; 15(6):745-50.
  • Schlosser K, Endres N, Celik I, et al. Surgical treatment of tertiary hyperparathyroidism: the choice of procedure matters! World J Surg 2007; 31(10):1947-53.