Thyroid Lymphoma

Doctor performing routine medical checkup

Overview Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare type of thyroid cancer. It arises from special blood cells called lymphocytes. PTL accounts for 1 to 5% of all thyroid cancers, 1 to 2% of all lymphomas outside of lymph nodes, and has an annual incidence of 2 cases per one million people. There are several…

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Medullary Thyroid Cancer

Woman holding purple ribbon

Overview Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare form of thyroid cancer and accounts for 3 to 10% of all thyroid cancers. MTC grows from specialized thyroid cells called parafollicular cells, or C-cells that make a hormone called calcitonin. Calcitonin helps control bone formation and blood calcium levels, but its action in humans is not very powerful. Unlike thyroxine (T4), calcitonin does…

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Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

Differentiated thyroid cancer This group includes papillary (PTC), follicular (FTC), Hurthle (HCC), and follicular variant (FVPTC) types of thyroid cancer. If the cancer is very small and found only one side of the thyroid, or there is only a small amount of capsular invasion, without any evidence of vascular or lymphatic invasion, it is classified…

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